Balaam’s Donkey, the Gift of Language Balak


The Israelites are encamped on the border of Moab. Fearful of the Israelites’ power, the Moabite King Balak sends messengers to hire the wizard Baalam to pronounce an imprecation against Israel so the Moabites can defeat Israel in battle.

Balaam’s Donkey, the Gift of Language Balak 5773, Torah insight 45 minute service Central Synagogue of Nassau County

Rabbi Marc A. Gruber

After receiving the delegation, Baalam sought counsel from God, who told him that he should not curse the Israelites for they are blessed.” Balak refused to accept this answer and twice sent Moabite princes in an effort to persuade Baalam to change his mind. Eventually, the Almighty permitted Baalam to accompany the princes, but on the condition he spoke Gods message.

During the journey, Balaam’s donkey encountered an armed angel blocking its way. Three times this happened and three times Baalam, who does not see the angel, struck the donkey. Now, the animal speaks out,What have I done to you that you have beaten me these three times? . . . I am the ass that you have been riding all along until

this day! Have I been in the habit of doing this to you? Finally Balaam

sees the angel from whom the ass protected him and, realizes he has sinned by accepting Balak’s invitation; he offers to go back. The angel tells him he may proceed, on the condition that he speaks only the words God tells him.

What is the meaning of this fable?

gainst Balaam’s thoughtless fury, the donkey answers calmly and with reason. The Midrash (Bamidbar Rabbah Number 20: 14) expands this observation. They ask why it is that animals do not use speech? Our Sages respond, “Had they been able to speak, it would have been impossible to put them to the service of people or to stand ones

ground against them. Here was this ass, the most stupid of beasts, and there was the wisest of the wise, yet as soon as she opened her mouth, he could not stand his ground against her. Therefore, conclude the rabbis, “God has consideration for the embarrassment of people, and knowing their needs, shut the mouth of beasts.”

In many ways, our use of language differentiates us from the other species. Other animals are sentient; not too many are sapient. Our sapience is exhibited by our use of language. This is our blessing that helps define us as human beings.

We have the ability to communicate complex and abstract ideas. Beginning with spoken language, independently, several human cultures developed the written word, a means to communicate with others over thousands of miles or thousands of years.                                                                                     

Human language is based on a dual code, wherein a finite number of meaningless elements, e.g. sounds, letters or gestures, can be combined in infinite ways to form units of meaning, words and sentences . The symbols and grammatical rules of any particular language are largely arbitrary, meaning that the system can only be acquired through social interaction.

Human language is also recursive. Without developing linguistic theory, Our memory and language enables us to render meaningful phrases such as “David’s sister’s husband’s uncles boss.”